L to Q
A-C ... D-K ...LMNOPQ... R-Z ... Heraldry
Laccadive Islands A scattered group of islands and atolls to the southwest of India.
Laconia A region in southern Greece.
Ladakh An old Kingdom in the far north of India, next to Tibet.
Ladoga A district in northwestern Russia.
Lagash An ancient Kingdom in Mesopotamia.
Lagore The southern half of the Irish kingdom of Brega.
Lagos An important port city in Nigeria
Lahij A small Sultanate in Yemen, just north of Aden.
Lahore A city in north-central Pakistan.
Lakhnauti A sultanate in Bihar and northern Bengal.
La Marche A County in northern France.
Lampron A fortress in southern Turkey.
Lands Beyond the Meuse A group of small districts in far southern Netherlands.
Lan Na A district in northern Thailand.
the Lapithes An early Hellenic tribe.
Lapithos A city on Cyprus.
Lappa A town in western Crete.
Laria A town in central Nigeria
Larissa Largest city in Thessaly, northern Greece.
Larsa An ancient kingdom in Mesopotamia.
Lassaea A port in south central Crete.
Lathum A small district in Gelderland.
Lato A town in eastern Crete.
Lausanne A city and bishopric in western Switzerland, on the north shore of Lake Geneva.
LEBANON A state in the central Levantine coast of the Mediterranean.
Leicester A city in central England.
Leiningen A group of principalities in western Germany.
Leinster An early Kingdom in eastern Ireland.
the Leleges An early Hellenic tribe.
Lemnos An island in the northeastern Aegean.
Lenkoran A city on the Caspian coast in southeast Azerbaijan.
Lennox A district in western Scotland.
Lentini A town in eastern Sicily.
Leon An old district in Brittany.
Leon A kingdom in northern Spain.
Leontopolis An ancient city in the Nile delta, north of modern Cairo.
Leptis Magna A Phoenician city in western Libya.
Leros An island in the Dodecanese, southeastern Aegean.
Lesbos An island in the northeastern Aegean Sea, near Turkey.
LESOTHO A state in southern Africa.
Leucas An island off the coast of northwestern Greece.
Leuchtenberg A district in Bavaria.
Leutkirchen A city in southern Germany.
Lewis and Harris The largest of the Hebrides Islands.
Leyen A principality in western Germany.
Liao-Xi An early Hsien-pi Kingdom in what is now eastern Manchuria.
Liban An early district in what is now Lebanon.
LIBERIA A state in western Africa.
Libu An ancient Libyan tribe which took several regions in western Egypt.
Lichtenvoorde A minor lordship in central Netherlands.
LIECHTENSTEIN A state on the upper Rhine, between Switzerland and Austria.
Liege A city and Bishopric in Belgium.
LihouA small island within the Channel Islands.
Lihyan An ancient Arabian kingdom.
Lijien A frontier outpost of early China in northern Xinjiang.
Lilaea An ancient town in south-central Greece.
Limburg A duchy in eastern Belgium and southeastern Netherlands.
Limburg (an der Lenne) A tiny county in northern Germany.
Limerick A city in southern Ireland.
Limoges A town in south-central France.
Lindau A city in southwestern Germany.
Lindisfarne An Abbey in northeastern England.
Lindos A city in eastern Rhodes.
Lindsey A small Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Lincolnshire.
Lipovets A district in northeastern Ukraine.
Lippe A group of counties in northern Germany.
Lisos A town in western Crete.
Little Popo A tribal state in southern Togo.
LoangaA tribal kingdom on the coast of Congo (Brazzaville).
Lochaber A district in western Scotland.
Locria A district in south-central Greece.
Lodi A town in northern Italy.
Logozhesk A town in central Belarus.
The LombardsA Germanic tribe which occupied much of Italy during the Dark Ages.
London The chief city in Great Britain.
Loon A small countship in Belgium.
Lorca A town in southeastern Spain.
Lorch (Freistaat Flaschenhals) A small town in western Germany.
Lord High Stewards of England The Mediaeval administrators of this Kingdom.
Lord High Stewards of Ireland The Mediaeval administrators of this Kingdom.
Lord High Stewards of Scotland The Mediaeval administrators of this Kingdom.
Lord Mayors of London The civil administrators of this city.
Lord of the Isles The Hebrides Isles of northwestern Scotland.
Lori A district in Armenia.
Loritello A lordship in southern Italy.
Lorraine A Duchy in eastern France.
Los Altos A district in Guatemala.
Lothian A County in southern Scotland.
Lower Egypt The region of the Lower Nile - northern Egypt generally.
Lower Lorraine An early Mediaeval Duchy in Belgium.
Lozi A tribe in west-central Zambia.
Lu A small state in southern Shandong Province, China. The birthplace of Confucius.
Luba A Bantu Tribe in Katanga, Congo.
Lübeck The bishopric associated with this city.
Lübeck An imperial free city in northwestern Germany.
Lucca A town in northern Italy.
Luchesk A town in western Ukraine.
Lugano A town in far southern Switzerland.
Lukoml A town in northern Belarus.
Lunda A Bantu Tribe in Katanga, Congo.
Lundy A small island in southwestern England.
Lur-I-Burzug (Southern Luristan) A region in western Iran.
Lur-I-Kuchik (Northern Luristan) A region in western Iran.
Luytcoit A Dark-Ages kingdom in Britain based at Lichfield.
Luzern A town in central Switzerland.
Lycia A region in southwestern Turkey.
Lydia A ancient kingdom in western Turkey.
Lykastos A town in central Crete.
Lyktos A town in central Crete.
the Lyngistes An early Hellenic tribe.
Lyrnessos A town in the Troad, far northwestern Turkey.
Maastricht A city in far southern Netherlands.
Macassar A Sultanate in southwestern Celebes.
Macedonia An ancient Hellenic Kingdom and Empire.
MACEDONIA A Slavic state in the western Balkans.
Macina A region in the upper Niger watershed, in central Mali.
MâconA city in southern France.
Maczva A district in central Serbia which includes the capital at Belgrade.
MADAGASCAR A large island state off southeastern Africa.
MADEIRA ISLANDS An archipelago off northwestern Africa.
Madura An island off northeastern Java, in Indonesia.
Madurai A city in far southern India.
Maeotes An ancient tribe living in southeastern Ukraine.
Magadan A region in far eastern Siberia.
Magadha A large and important region of north-central India, core of several Indian Empires.
MagarevaAn island in French Polynesia.
Magdeburg A city and Bishopric in eastern Germany.
Magh Luirg A petty kingdom in western Ireland.
Magister Militum The chief military officer ("Master of Troops") of the late Roman Empire.
the Magnites An early Hellenic tribe.
Magonset A Mercian sub-Kingdom in Hereford and Shropshire, England.
Maguindanao A Sultanate on the island of Mindanao, in the southern Philippines.
The Magyars The tribal antecedents of the Hungarian people.
Mahra A sultanate in eastern Yemen.
Maimana A city in northwest Afghanistan.
Maina A district in the far south of Greece.
Maine A County in northwestern France.
Mainz A city and Archbishop-Electorate in western Germany.
Majapahit A Hindu Empire based in eastern Java.
Majin An ephemeral state in central Korea at the beginning of the 10th century.
Majorca The largest of the Balearic Isles, in the western Mediterranean.
Makan A region in southwestern Pakistan.
Maku A small Khanate in the far northwestern tip of Iran.
Malaga A city in southern Spain.
MALDIVE ISLANDS An archipelago state off southwestern India.
Malia A town in central Crete.
the Malieis An early Hellenic tribe.
Malienydd A sub-Kingdom in south-central Wales, modern Radnorshire.
Malla A town in eastern Crete.
MALTA An island state south of Sicily.
Malacca A Sultanate in the Malay Peninsula of Southeast Asia.
Malwa A Kingdom in west-central India.
Manavadar A town in far western India.
Manchuria A region and sometime state comprising most of northeast China.
Mandara A tribal kingdom in northern Cameroon.
Mandinea A town in southern Greece.
Mangku Negaran A lordship in Java.
Manipur A small state of India, in the far northeast.
Mannai An ancient kingdom in Azerbaijan.
Mantua A duchy on the Po River, in northern Italy.
Mar An Earldom (actually, a pair of them) in Scotland.
Maragheh A town in northwestern Iran.
Marash A city in southern Turkey.
Marathus A town in Syria, on the Mediterranean coast.
Maratha Confederacy A group of Hindu states arising in central India in the 17th century.
(the Welsh) Marches A broad belt of territories along the England-Wales frontier.
Marck A Rhenish duchy in western Germany.
The Marcomanni An early Teutonic tribe.
Mari An ancient city in eastern Syria.
Marib An early Kingdon in northern Yemen.
Marida A town in southeastern Turkey.
Marion A town in Cyprus.
Maronea A town in far northern Greece.
Maronite patriarchs Christian religious leaders in Lebanon.
Marseille A major city on the south coast of France.
MARSHALL ISLANDS A state within Micronesia, in the western Pacific.
The Marsi An ancient tribe in central Italy.
MARTINIQUE A French island in the Windwards, eastern Caribbean.
Mascara A district in northern Algeria.
Maseko A tribal kingdom in Malawi.
Massa-Carrara A small Principality on the western coast of northern Italy.
The Massagetai An ancient tribe in central Asia.
Matelica A small town in central Italy.
Matala A town in central Crete.
Mataram (Elder) A state in Java, fl. c. 725 CE-c. 1075
Mataram (Younger) A state in Java, fl. c. 1550-1755
Mathura A Scythian state south of Delhi.
Matrega A Genoese colony on the Taman Peninsula, in the northern Black Sea.
MAURITIUS An island state in the Indian Ocean, southeast of Madagascar.
The Maya A group of closely related Amerindian nations in Central America.
Mayors of the Palace Frankish royal officials in Merovingian times.
Mayotte An island in the Seychelles.
Mazandaran An Iranian district south of the Caspian Sea.
Mazovia A Duchy in central Poland.
Mearns A district in eastern Scotland.
Meath An early Kingdom in east-central Ireland.
Mecca A city in western Arabia, the chief religious center of Islam.
Mechelen A city in north-central Belgium.
Mecklenburg A group of duchies and grand duchies in north Germany.
Medea A city in southern Greece.
Medina A city in western Arabia.
Megalopolis A city in southern Greece.
Megara A city in east-central Greece.
Meirionydd A sub-kingdom in western Wales, on the coast.
Meissen A city and bishopric in eastern Germany.
Meissen A margraviate in eastern Germany.
Melanchaeni An ancient tribe living in the western Volga watershed.
Melfi A principality in southern Italy.
Meliboea A city in northern Greece.
Melilla A Spanish city on the north coast of Morocco.
Melitene A region in east-central Turkey, the site of several states from ancient times.
Memel A city on the Lithuanian coast.
Memmingen A city in southern Germany.
Mena A town in northern Ukraine.
Mendes A district in the east-central Nile Delta.
Menteith A district in central Scotland.
MeonwaraA Jutish Kingdom in southern England.
Mercia An important Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in south-central England.
Merkits A Mongol tribe of southern Siberia.
Meroë An early kingdom in the Sudan.
Merseburg A city and Bishopric in eastern Germany.
Mertola A town in southern Portugal.
Messerano A small Principality in northwestern Italy.
Messina A city in far northeastern Sicily.
Messina (Ithómi) A fortress in southwestern Greece.
Messini A port town in southwestern Greece.
Metternich A German noble family.
Metz A city and bishopric in eastern France.
large state in central North America.
See also: Azcapotzalco, B'aakal (Palenque), Calakmul, Chan Santa Cruz, Chichen Itza, Chichimec, Cuyuacán, Itza, Mayapan, the Mixtecs, the Olmecs, Patzcuaro, Purepecha, Tamactun-Acalan, Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan (the Aztec), Tepanecatl, Texcoco, Tlapocan, the Tlaxcaltec, the Toltecs, Tonina, Tzintzuntzán, Yaxchilan, Yokib', Yucatan, and the Zapotecs.
ui Mhaine A tribal kingdom in western Ireland.
Michigan A state within the United States, located amidst the Great Lakes.
MICRONESIA An autonomous group of states in the western Pacific associated with the USA.
Middle Angles A Dark Ages sub-kingdom in east-central England.
Middlesex A Dark Ages sub-kingdom in southeastern England.
The Midianites A confederation of Western Semitic tribes in what is now southern Israel.
Mikulin A town in central Russia, northwest of Moscow.
Milan An important city in northern Italy.
Milan The Archbishops associated with this city.
Milas A Ghazi state in old Caria, southwestern Turkey.
Miletus A town in eastern Crete.
Miletus A city in Ionia, on the Turkish mainland.
Milos An island in the central Aegean.
Min A district in southeastern China, roughly equivalent to Fujian Province.
Minden A city and Bishopric in northern Germany.
Mingrelia A Georgian district in the Caucasus.
Minnesota A state within the United States, located at the headwaters of the Mississippi.
The Minquiers A group of islets and rocks within the Channel Islands.
Minsk Capital and largest city of Belarus.
Mirandola A small Principality in northern Italy.
Misau A Fulani Emirate in northeastern Nigeria.
Mississippi A state within the United States, located in the deep south.
Missouri A state within the United States, located in the central Mississippi region.
Mitanni An ancient tribal Kingdom in southeastern Anatolia.
Mixtec A pre-Columbian tribal nation in southern Mexico.
Moab An ancient tribal Kingdom in much of what is now Jordan.
Modaeoi A town in western Crete.
Modena A duchy in north-central Italy.
Mogadishu Capital and largest city in Somalia, eastern Africa.
Mogulistan A Mongol (Chagataiid)-derived Empire in Chinese Turkestan (Xinjiang).
Moha A county in Belgium.
Mohéli An island in the Seychelles.
MOLDOVA A state in the eastern Balkans.
Molina A town in southeastern Spain.
Molise A provincial district in southern Italy.
the Molossoi An early Hellenic tribe.
Mombasa A city on the coast of Kenya.
Møn A small island in Denmark.
MONACO A Principality on the Mediterranean coast of France, very near the Italian border.
MonastirA city on the central Tunisian coast.
Monemvassia A fortress off southeastern Peloponessus, southern Greece.
MONGOLIA A state in east-Central Asia.
Mons A town in southwestern Belgium.
Montana A state within the United States, located in the northwest.
MONTENEGRO A state in the Balkans.
Montferrat A district in northwestern Italy.
Montfoort A small district in the Netherlands.
Mont St. Michel An island and Abbey in northern France.
Montserrat An island in the southern Windwards, Caribbean Sea.
Moravia A region of eastern Czech Republic.
Moray A county in eastern Scotland.
More & Romsdale Two provinces in southwestern Norway.
Morea A district in southern Greece, near Sparta.
Moresnet A district on the Belgian-German border.
Morgannwg A region in southern Wales.
Mori A Daimyo clan in Japan.
Morón A town in southern Spain.
Mörs A small county in far western Germany.
Mortain A town in northern France.
the Moschii A tribal nation in ancient eastern Anatolia.
Mosul A city in northern Iraq.
Moxoene A petty state in east-central Anatolia.
Mühlhausen A free city in eastern Germany.
Mukalla A sultanate in eastern Yemen.
Mulhouse An imperial free city in eastern France.
Mull An island in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland.
Multan A city in the Punjab, central Pakistan.
Munkacs A town in Transcarpathian Ruthenia, western Ukraine.
Münster The bishops governing an ecclesiastic principality in northwestern Germany.
Munster (Mumu) An ancient kingdom in southwestern Ireland.
Münsterberg-Öls Several districts in Silesia.
Murcia A Mediaeval Islamic Kingdom in southeastern Spain.
Murom A city in central Russia, east of Moscow.
Murviedro A town in eastern Spain.
Muscovy The Princes. See Moscow, above, for ecclesiastic authorities.
Mushikhuna An ancient Caananite city.
Mustang An isolated valley along the Nepalese frontier with Tibet.
Mycenae An ancient tribal Kingdom in southern Greece.
the Mygdones An early Hellenic tribe.
Mykonos An island in the northern Aegean.
Myrgings An ancient Germanic tribe.
Mysore A city and district in far southern India.
Mythimna A town on the Aegean island of Lesbos.
Mytilini A town on the Aegean island of Lesbos.
Nagpur A Marathan state in central India.
Naimans A Mongol tribe of southern Siberia.
Najd A region and tribal Kingdom of Central Arabia.
Najran A town in southwestern Saudi Arabia.
Nakhchivan An Azeri enclave located between Armenia, Turkey and Iran.
Nakhon si Thammarat A province in southern Thailand.
Namdale A district in central Norway.
NAMIBIA A state in southwestern Africa.
Nan Chao A kingdom in southern China, basically modern Yunnan Province.
Nan Han A district on the south coast of China.
Nantes A city in western France.
Nan Yue A region in far southern China.
Naples A large and important port in southern Italy.
Nashan An ancient Arabian kingdom.
Nassau A group of states in central Germany.
Nassau-Orange A Principality and dynasty of Central Germany and the Netherlands.
Natal A province and former Republic in eastern South Africa.
Naukratis A Greek commercial colony in the western Nile Delta.
Nauplion A district in southern Greece.
NAURU An island state in the western Pacific.
Navarre A Kingdom in northern Spain.
Navassa Island a small island near Haiti.
Nawanagar A town in western India.
Naxos and the Archipelago The Cyclades Archipelago within the central Aegean.
Nea Paphos A port on the southwestern corner of Cyprus.
Nebraska A state within the United States, located in the central Great Plains.
Negeri Sembilan A state in the Malay Peninsula, north of Malacca, south of Pahang, and west of Johore.
Nemea A city in northeastern Peloponessus, southern Greece.
Nemours A town in northern France.
Neretva A district on the Croatian coast.
Nerike A petty kingdom in southern Sweden.
Nesselrode A German noble family.
Nestorian Patriarchate The chief ecclesiarchs of this sect, including Assyrian and Chaldean churches.
Nesvezh A town in central Belarus.
A kingdom in northwestern Europe.
See also Borculo, Cuyk, Drente, Frisia, Gelderland, Haamstede, Holland, Lands Beyond the Meuse, Limburg, Ravenstein, Rechteren, 's-Hertogenrade, Thorn, Twente, Twickel, Utrecht, Valkenburg, Zeeland.
Netherlands Antilles An island group in the Caribbean.
Netherlands East Indies The Dutch possessions in southeastern Asia, mostly Indonesia today.
Neuchatel The county and principality predating the canton listed below.
Neuchatel A town and district in western Switzerland.
Nevada A state within the United States, located in the far west.
Neustria A Frankish Dark-Ages Kingdom in what is now northern France.
Nevers A town in central France.
New Guinea A large island between Indonesia in Asia and Melanesia in Oceania.
New Hampshire A state within the United States, located in the upper northeast.
New Jersey A state within the United States, located in the northeast.
New Mexico A state within the United States, located in the southwest.
New York A state within the United States, located in the northeast.
Ngoni A tribal kingdom in Malawi.
Nicaea A district in northwestern Anatolia.
NICARAGUA A state in Central America.
Niebla A town in southwestern Spain.
Niedermünster A convent in Regensburg, southern Germany.
NIGERIA A state in West Africa.
See: Abeokuta, Abuja, Akwa Akpa, Argungu, Bauchi, Biram, Bonny, Brass, Calabar, Daura, Daura-Baure, Daura-Zango, Duketown, Gwandu, Ibadan, Ilorin, Jama'are, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kororofa, Lagos, Laria, Misau, Nupe, Old Calabar, Opobo, Oyo, Suleja, Zamfara, and Zaria.
Niihau An island in the Hawaiian Chain.
Nijmegen A city in east-central Netherlands.
Nippur An ancient city in south-central Mesopotamia.
Nisyros A Dodecanese island, south of Cos.
Nitra An early Slavic tribal state in Slovakia.
NIUE An island in the South Pacific.
Nivelet A Mediaeval Barony in the Peloponessus, southern Greece.
Niy An ancient Caananite city.
The Nizari The Syrian branch of the Shi'ite Assassin movement.
Nizhegorod A city in central Russia.
Nizwa A town in central Oman.
Nkore A tribal kingdom in southwestern Uganda.
The Nogai A Mongol horde, active in southern Russia and Central Asia.
Nordhausen A city in northern Germany.
Nördlingen A city in southern Germany.
Norfolk A county in eastern England.
Norfolk Island An island in the southwest Pacific.
Normandy A region in northern France.
North Powys A district in eastern Wales.
Northampton A county in England.
Northumbria A Dark-Ages kingdom covering most of northern England.
kingdom in northern Europe.
See also Agder, Alvheim, Fjordane, Halogaland, Hedmark, Hordaland, Jadar, More & Romsdale, Namdale, Reidgotaland, Ringerike, Rogaland, Romerike, Sogn, Solor, Sondmor, Svithjod, Vestfold, Viken, Vingulmark, and Vorz.
Noto A town in far southeastern Sicily.
Novara A town in northern Italy.
Novellara A town in northern Italy.
Novgorod A city in northwestern Russia.
Novgorod-Severskiy A town in Ukraine.
Novgorodok A town in Belarus.
Nubia A vast region in northeastern Africa - basically the modern nation of Sudan.
Numidia An ancient kingdom in northwestern Africa
Nupe A tribal kingdom in west-central Nigeria.
Nürnberg The lands, as a burggraviate, surrounding this central German city.
Nürnberg An imperial free city in central Germany.
NuribtaA ancient Caananite city.
The Nusayri A Shi'ite sect centered largely in Syria.
Nykli A Mediarval Barony in southern Arcadia, Greece.
Oda A Daimyo clan in Japan.
Odessa A large town in southwestern Ukraine.
Oeneoi A town in southern Greece.
the Oetaeoi An early Hellenic tribe.
OffenburgA city in southwestern Germany.
Oghuz An ancient Turkic tribe.
Ohio A state of the United States, located in the midwest.
Ohrid a town in southwestern (Slavic) Macedonia, site of an archbishopric.
Oklahoma A state within the United States, located in the central Great Plains.
Olbia An ancient Greek colony on the coast of Ukraine.
Oldenburg A County and Duchy in northwestern Germany.
Olmec An ancient people of Central America.
Olmütz A city and Bishopric in Moravia, Czech Republic.
Olous An ancient city in northern Crete.
Olyanthos A Chalcidician city in northern Greece.
OMAN A state in eastern Arabia.
Ootmarsum A small town in eastern Netherlands.
Opobo A town in far southeastern Nigeria.
Oppland An inland province of Norway.
Orange A city in southeastern France.
Orange Free State A Republic in northeastern South Africa.
Orchomenos A town in Boeotia, central Greece.
Order of Christ A Portuguese Order of Knighthood.
Ordos A Horde in western Mongolia.
Oraeoi An ancient town in Euboea, central Greece.
Oran A port in northwestern Algeria.
Oregon A state within the United States, located in the northwest Pacific coast.
the Orestes An early Hellenic tribe.
Orchha A district in north-central India.
Oriel A petty Kingdom in northern Ireland.
Orihuela A town in southeastern Spain.
Orion An ancient town in northern Crete.
Orissa A province in eastern India.
Orkdal A district in central Norway.
Orkney Isles An archipelago off the northern end of Britain.
Orleans A city in northern France.
Ormenio Ancient town in Thessaly, north-central Greece.
Ormond An Anglo-Norman Earldom in southern Ireland.
Ortenburg A group of estates in Bavaria and Carinthia.
Ösel An island in the Baltic, off the coast of Estonia; called in Estonian Saaremaa.
Osnabruck A town and Prince-Bishopric in northwestern Germany.
Osroene An ancient city-state in southern Turkey, based at what was later called Edessa and now Urfa.
Ossetia A district in the northern Caucasus, between Georgia and Russia.
Ossola A town in northwestern Italy.
Ossory A tribal Kingdom in central Ireland.
Ostrog A town in northwestern Ukraine.
Otomo A Daimyo clan in Japan.
Ottoman Empire, Grand Viziers The "prime ministers" of the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman Empire, Sultans & Caliphs The sovereigns of the Ottoman Empire.
Otrar An ancient city in southern Khazakhstan.
Ouchi A Daimyo clan in Japan.
Oxford A city in central England.
Oxuitza A Mayan city-state near modern Caracol.
Oyo A Yoruba state located in southwestern Nigeria.
Padua A city in northern Italy.
Paekche An early Kingdom in southwestern Korea.
Paeonia The Vardar Valley region of western Bulgaria, eastern Macedonia, and northern Greece.
The Paetoi An early Hellenic tribe.
Pagan An early Kingdom in central Burma.
Pahang A state in the lower Malay Peninsula.
Pajang A Sultanate in central Java.
Pakhli A old district in northwestern Pakistan.
PAKISTAN A state in southern Asia.
See: Amb, Bahawalpur, Baluchistan, Bangladesh (East Pakistan), Chitral, Chittagong, Dir, Gwadar, Hunza, Lahore, Multan, Nagar, Peshawar, Punjab, Sindh, Suren, Swat, Taxila, and Waziristan. See also Kashmir.
Paku Alaman A lordship on Java.
The Palatines Senior Hungarian officials,
Palembang A city and state in southern Sumatra.
Palenque A Mayan city state in northern Chiapas Province, Mexico.
Paleopaphos An ancient city in southwestern Cyprus.
Palermo Largest city in Sicily.
Pallars An early Christian state in northeastern Spain.
Pallava Empire An ancient regional empire in southern India.
Palmares A district in far eastern Brazil.
Palmyra A region in central Syria.
PALAU A state in Micronesia, the western Pacific
PamphyliaA province in central Turkey.
PANAMA A state ate the eastern end of the isthmus connecting North to South America.
Panchen Lamas Important theocratic officials in Tibet.
Panopeus An ancient town in Phokis, central Greece.
Panormos An ancient town in Crete.
Papal States Districts in central Italy belonging to the Pope.
Paphlagonia A province in central Turkey.
PAPUA-NEW GUINEA A state comprising the eastern half of New Guinea.
Paracel Islands An archipelago in the South China Sea.
PARAGUAY A landlocked state in south-central South America.
Parhae An early Kingdom in northeastern China.
ParisCapital and largest city in France.
Parma A city in northwestern Italy.
The Parni A Scythian tribe living in northeastern Iran.
Paros An island in the central Cyclades, Aegean Sea.
Passau A town and Prince-Bishopric in southeastern Germany.
Passavas A village at the base of the Maina Peninsula, in Laconia, south Greece.
Patan A town in central Nepal, nowadays Lalitapur.
Pate An island off the coast of Kenya.
Patiala A city located northwest of New Delhi, India.
Patmos An island in the Dodecanese group, Aegean Sea.
Patras A town and bishopric in northern Peloponessus, Greece.
Pavia A town in northern Italy.
Pechenegs An early tribe of Steppe Nomads in the Ukraine.
Pecsaete A Dark-Ages subkingdom in north-central England.
Pegu A region in southern Burma.
the Pelasgoi An early Hellenic tribe.
Pella A locale in northwestern Jordan.
PelliniA town in southern Greece.
Pelusium The Mediterranean coast of the Sinai Peninsula.
Pengwern A minor Kingdom in western England, on the Welsh frontier, in the Dark Ages.
Penychen A small principality in south-central Wales.
Peraea A district in northwestern Jordan, alongside the Jordan River.
Perak A state in the Malay Peninsula.
Perche A county in northern France.
Peresopnitsa A village in western Ukraine.
Pereyaslavl A Russian town, now called (New) Riazan.
Pereyaslavl A city in central Ukraine.
Pereyaslavl (P.-Zalessky), a town in northern Russia.
Pergamon An ancient state in far western Anatolia.
Pergamos An ancient city in southern Crete.
Périgord A region in western France.
Perlis A state in the northern Malay Peninsula.
Pernambuco A province in eastern Brazil.
the Perraivoi An early Hellenic tribe.
PERU A state in western South America.
Perugia A region of central Italy.
Pesaro A port on the Adriatic coast of Italy.
Peshawar A city in northern Pakistan.
Pfullendorf A city in southwestern Germany.
Phaestos A large city in southern Crete.
Phalanna A city in Crete.
Phalasarna A city in western Crete.
Pharbaithos A district in ancient Egypt.
Phares A town in southwestern Greece.
Phatlan A town in central India.
Pheneos A town in southern Greece.
PheresA city (now called Demetrias) in north-central Greece.
Philippolis A town in South Africa.
The Philistines An early Middle-Eastern tribe.
Phlious A city in south-central Greece.
Phokis A district in central Greece.
Phrygia An ancient kingdom in western Anatolia.
Phthia A district in north-central Greece.
Phulera A district in the Northwest Territories of Pakistan.
Piacenza A district in northern Italy.
PicardyA district in far northern France.
The Picts A tribe of early Celtic peoples in Scotland.
Piedmont A large region of northwestern Italy.
Pinsk A city in Belarus.
Pinya A kingdom in early Burma.
Piombino A small principality on the coast of Tuscany, in Italy.
Pisa A town in southern Greece.
Pisa A city in Tuscany, Italy.
Pitcairn IslandA small island in the eastern Pacific.
Plataea A city in central Greece.
Plock A partition duchy in central Poland.
Podolia A region in western Ukraine, near the Carpathians.
Poiiessa A city on the island of Kea, in the Aegean.
Poitou A county in western France.
A state in central Europe.
See also Cracow, Czersk, Danzig, Greater Poland, Kalisz, Kuiavia, Mazovia, Plock, Pomerania, Pomerelia, Pomesania, Przemysl, Sandomir, Sieradz-Leczyca, Silesia, Sochaczew, Warsaw, and Wroclaw.
Polesine A town in north-eastern Italy
Polotsk A major principality in Belarus.
Polychna An ancient city in western Crete.
Polykandros An island in the Aegean.
Polyrrenia An ancient city in Crete.
Pomerania A duchy in northwestern Poland.
Pomesania An ecclesiastic state in northeastern Poland.
Pondicherry A city in southeastern India.
Ponte Corvo A town in south-central Italy.
Ponthieu A county in Normandy.
Pontianak A sultanate on the west coast of Borneo.
Pontifex Maximus The office of the High Priests in ancient Rome.
Pontoiraklia A ancient town on the Black Sea coast, in northwestern Anatolia.
Pontus An ancient kingdom in northeastern Anatolia.
Poona The capital of the Maratha Confederacy, in India.
Pora Pora An island in the eastern Pacific, in northwestern French Polynesia.
PORTUGAL A state in southwestern Europe.
Potidaea A town in far northern Greece.
Powys A principality in eastern Wales.
Praesos An ancient town in eastern Crete.
Prague Capital, Archbishopric, and largest city in the Czech Republic.
Preveza A town in northwestern Greece.
Priansos An ancient town in central Crete.
Prime Ministers The heads-of-governnment for England and Great Britain.
Pronsk A town in central Russia.
Provence A region in far southeastern France.
Prüm An abbey in far western Germany.
Prussia A region, later a duchy and then Kingdom, bordering the southern Baltic.
Przemysl A city in far southeastern Poland.
Pskov A town in northwestern Russia, near the Estonian border.
PUERTO RICO A large island in the Caribbean.
Punjab A region of central Pakistan.
Punt A district comprising the tip of the Horn of Africa.
Purchena A town in southeastern Spain.
Purepecha A tribe living in south-central Mexico.
Putivl A town in the Ukraine.
Putten A lordship in the Netherlands.
PuyoA district in western Korea.
Pylos Navarino, Greece
Qandahar A city in southern Afghanistan.
Qarabagh A district in western Azerbaijan.
Qarakalpak A region to the southeast of the Aral Sea.
Qara Khitai An early Mongol tribal empire.
Qara Koyunlu A Turkoman Horde in western Iran.
Qaraman-Oghlu A tribal emirate in central Anatolia.
Qarashahr A city in far western China, Xinjiang province.
Qataban An ancient tribal Kingdom in southern Yemen.
QATAR A state on the Persian Gulf.
Qian Qin An ancient state in northwestern China.
Qinghai A province of west-central China.
Qomul A minor Turkic Khanate in Xinjiang.
Qonduz A region of northern Afghanistan.
The Quadi An early Germanic tribe.
Quadt-Wykradt A German district.
Que Southern Anatolia.
Quedlinburg A convent in north-central Germany.
Quiche A tribe of southern Maya, in far southern Mexico and Guatemala.
Quirigua A Mayan city-state in eastern Guatemala.
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