This page is intended as a reference guide for students of Roman mythology. When completed, it will hopefully be a compilation of all the known deities of the pre-Chistian Latins. The descriptions will include areas of authority, attributes, images, appearance, and selected comments or stories which might help characterize the divinity better. As I implied above, this is an ongoing work which, at the moment, is incomplete. I most certainly solicit comments and contributions; if you have additional information for me (or complaints, for that matter), I ask only that you try to supply documentation in support of what you have to say.
Here is a catalogue, hopefully reasonably complete, of known Roman God-forms. The information here is necessarily brief; a full accounting of all these entities would be a massive book in its own right. What is included here is:
a Name (A note on origin, if other than local Latin), (A translation, in parentheses, of the name if I know it) the culture that Name appears within, any important epithets or sobriquets that are associated with the Name, and a basic description of spheres of influence, attributes, and/or descriptive stories.
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Angerona (Etruscan) An Etruscan divinity, She remained into Roman times as Goddess of the winter solstice. She has connections to Death, and to Silence, and seems to represent the passage of the yearly cycle into a time which symbolizes completion, the seed of renewal, and the duty to accept adversity in silence. Her image is invariably that of a female, mouth sealed and a finger placed upon it. She has been conflated to a degree with Ceres.
Angitia (Italian) An obscure Goddess associated with witchcraft, herbalism, healing, and eloquence. In later times, She was often conflated with the Hellenic sorceress Circe.
Arkate and Alpanu (Etruscan) Two very obscure north Italian divinities whose tale has been almost entirely eroded away. Arkate, who appears as an old man in a heavy cloak, opposes Alpanu in some manner.
Aurora Goddess of the dawn, and Divine Herald of the day, and by extension, new beginnings of any sort. Similar in many respects to the Hellenic Eos.
Bacchus God of wine, intoxication, and ecstatic celebration. Similar in most important respects to Dionysios.
Bellona A Goddess of war, attended to by violent and frenzied rites.
Caca Goddess of Latrines and waste disposal.
Cardea Goddess of thresholds and door-hinges, and thus a Patroness of changes-of-state, an element of great importance in the Latin psyche. She also has Huntress connections, and is associated in some manner with Diana. Not at all surprisingly, She is close associated with Janus as well.
Castor & Pollux Twin Deities associated with the sea, the Roman eqivalents of the Hellenic Kastor & Polydeukes.
Catha (Etruscan) An early north Italian divinity associated with the sun. His cult became absorbed by that of Apollo.
Charun (Etruscan) A north Italian God of death. He wields a warhammer, or maul, and often accompanies Mars. His cult was conflated with that of Hades-Pluto for the most part. Despite the similarity in names, it not certain that Charon is a version of this divinity, or a separate conception.
Cloaca Goddess of sewage systems and drains.
Consus Patron of horses, stables, grainaries, and storage facilities, especially underground structures. As such, He also has connections to Patronage over secret plans and conspiracies.
Cupid Son of Venus, and God of love and sexual passion.
Cupra (Etruscan) A fertility Goddess, one of an ancient triad alongside Minerva and Tina.
Diana (Lala: Etruscan) Goddess of the moon and Patroness of groves, forests, and the natural world. She is a huntress and protectress of animals. A perpetual maiden, she is usually conflated with the Hellenic Artemis. Even so, She is also regarded as having authority over childbirth and midwivery. Finally, She seems to have connections to plebians, commoners, fugitives, outlaws, and slaves as a kind of natural protectress. The theme here seems to be that anything helpless, downtrodden, misunderstood, in a condition of mystery, or circumstances contrary to the normal flow finds in Her an advocate. She is the daughter of Jupiter by Latona. She is considered a triple-Goddess; for divinities often regarded as Aspects, see Hekate, Lucina, and Phoebe.
Dispater Underworld ruler of the dead, similar in many respects to the Hellenic Hades.
Fauna and Faunus Paired Deities of grove and forest, and the life therein. Faunus was originally a mythical King of Latium, but in later times, these spirits were conflated with Hellenic Pan, and the Race of Satyrs.
Februus (Etruscan) God of ritual purification. He is very likely an early source for Febris, a later Roman Goddess associated with fevers and malaria. The month of February was the season of purificatory rites and the renewal of vows, and was named for the festival honoring the later Roman divinity.
Feronia (Etruscan) Fertility Goddess associated with fire. There is some evidence to connect Her with Flora as well.
Flora Goddess of plant life, especially flowers. Her festival was one noted for sexual extravagance, but She also has connections with the Dead.
Fons Any of a class of spirits controlling freshwater sources.
Fufluns (Etruscan) God of natural growth in plants, animals, and humans. His cult was conflated with that of Bacchus to a large degree
Fulgora Goddess of Lightning..
Genius Any of a class of Spirits, each one the Guide and Protector of a particular person of male gender. Similar in most respects to the modern idea of a Guardian Angel. See also Juno (II).
Haruspices (Etruscan) An early Etrurian divinity of prophecy and the taking of omens. In later times, the names was preserved as Haruspex, a priest or diviner tasked with the interpretation of mantic signs, especially the reading of entrails in sacrificial victims.
Jana (Etruscan) Consort of Janus, and Goddess of secrets, mysteries, and hidden things.
Janus (Etruscan) God of time, space, and passage. Guardian of roadways and gates, and presiding over all beginnings and cycles. He can see past, present, and future, and is responsible for the orderly movement of people and ideas through their appointed rounds. He is an example of the Roman obsession with boundaries, edges, transfer from one state to another, and organization. His consort is Jana.
Juno IConsort of Jupiter and queen of Heaven. Similar in most respects to the Hellenic Hera, Juno was considered the Protectress of Women ans Patroness of the Matronly virtues.As with Her Greek counterpart, she suffers from jealous rages at her Consort's constant infidelities, although the Latins tended to downplay this somewhat from the Greek model, since Roman notions of appropriate feminine conduct differ somewhat from Hellenic.
Juno IIAny of a class of Spirits, each one the Guide and Protector of a particular person of female gender. Similar in most respects to the modern idea of a Guardian Angel. See also Genius.
Jupiter Lord of the Universe, and King of Heaven. As with nearly all Aryan Gods of Sovereignty, He is a sky-lord, and his chief instrument of power is the thunderbolt. Similar in many respects to the Hellenic Zeus. Differences in personality are subtle, but real; Jupiter has more of the Roman character trait of Gravitas (dignity, stolid propriety) than Zeus, while Zeus is rather a bit more tempermental and spontaneous than Jupiter.
Juterna Goddess of hot springs, mineral baths, brooks and ponds. As such, She has healer aspects.
Juventas Goddess of youth and youthful activity. Closely paralleling the Hellenic Hebe.
Kulmu (Etruscan) Protector of tombs; He is always shown bearing shears and a torch.
The Lares (Etruscan) A set of household Gods worshipped by nearly everyone. They were said to be the offspring of Mercurius by Larunda, an Etruscan Goddess who was recognized in Roman times as the nymph Lara. The Lares were associated with the Lar Familiaris, ancestral spirits tied to particular tracts of land.
Latona Goddess of Light, and a close Roman equivalent to the Greek Leto. She is the mother of Diana by Jupiter.
Liber A God of vegetation and husbandry. His cult was conflated with that of Dionysios to a degree, and his festival was kept as a celebration for young men who had achieved adulthood.
Libitina Goddess of death or, more specifically, recipient and custodian of corpses. Her priests were needed in order to ritually purify a dead body, and claim it for the Goddess; before this was done, mere contact with a corpse was spiritually polluting. Her temple contained all the mortuary records and death registers.
Lucifer (light-bearer)The morning star. Said to be the son of Aurora.
Lupercus God of wolves, significant to Romans in that the mythological founders of the Roman Nation (Romulus and Remus) were suckled by a she-wolf in infancy.
Mars God of war and soldiers. Often identified with the Hellenic Ares, Mars did not have that Deity's grim and brutal reputation, but was seen rather as a legitimate apotheosis of the State's power and majesty.
Mefitis Goddess of miasmas and sulphuric vapours; associated closely with plagues and malarias, as these were regarded as the results of the volcanic emissions so common in Italy.
Mercurius The Messenger and Herald of the Gods, He also had responsibility for travelers and roadways. Similar in many ways to the Hellenic Hermes, Mercurius in the Roman world bore the cadeucus (a serpent entwinned staff) as a symbol of his office. The Romans also gave him authority over winds, and in this context he is said to be always a bane to Apollo, in that he constantly is stealing away Apollo's herds (the clouds).
Minerva (Etruscan) Daughter of Jupiter, Goddess of war and peace or, more properly, the decisions and actions of the State. As such, she is also a Goddess of wisdom. Based on an early Etruscan Goddess, She became heavily conflated with the Hellenic Pallas Athene.
Neptune Conflated in many important ways to the Hellenic Poseidon, Neptune is nevertheless not a Sea God as such, but to the Roman mind came out of an agricultural background. He is watery in that he is a Patron of irrigation, and like Poseidon he is a Master of Horse-kind.
The Penates A group of household Divinities, Guardians of a particular House and Family. They had special patronage over the hearth and kitchen, and the head of each household served as their priest.
Pluto A chthonic Deity, Lord of the Underworld and Ruler of the Dead. In many ways identical to the Hellenic Hades, Pluto also was wed to the daughter of the primary seasonal and agrarian Goddess ( Proserpina, daughter of Ceres), a circumstance which causes blights the Earth with winter when He is attended by Her, and blesses the earth with spring when She once more visits Her Mother.
Proserpina Daughter of Ceres, Consort of Pluto, and identical in all important respects to the Hellenic Persephone.
Quirinus A God of war, said to be the apotheosized Spirit of Romulus, founder of the City. In His origins, however, He seems to have been an independent Sabine divinity.
Salacia Goddess of salt pans, salt-licks, salt water sources in general. She has some healer aspects.
Saturn (South Italian) Originally an agricultural divinity, a special patron to labourers among grape vineyards, and associated with agrarian prosperity in general. He became identified with the Hellenic Kronos. as ruler of the universe in pre-Olympic times, supplanted by His son Jupiter. In Italian mythology, His spouse was Ops.
Silvanus (he of the forest)A God associated with parkland, copses, wooded glens, and the forest itself. His spirit was present anywhere there was waste ground or uncultivated land. He was an ominous figure, one who held the potential for terror and death, since to the Roman mind the forest primeval was a realm of chaos and fear, distinct from managed, settled territory.
Summanus A (literally) shadowy counterpart, or perhaps Aspect, to Jupiter. A Sky-Lord and Ruler of the nocturnal heavens, inasmuch as Jupiter was associated with diurnal hours.
Terminus Deity of Sacred Space, and the boundaries thereof. His Spirit was said to reside in cairns, landmarks, and boundary markers. He is another example, like Janus, of the Roman preoccupation with space, distance, edges, and the transition from one state to another.
Tiberinus Tutelary God of the Tiber River. Also known as Volturnus.
Tina (Etruscan) Chief God of the early Etruscan pantheon, and forming with Cupra and Minerva a sovereign triad. He wielded a lightning-bolt, and became synchretized with Jupiter in later times. There is some evidence to suggest a close connection as a source to Summanus.
Turan (Etruscan) Goddess of love, often associated with Zirna.
Turms (Etruscan) The early north Italian version of Mercurius.
Tushna (Etruscan) An early north Italian version of Apollo.
Venus (blooming nature ?) Goddess of beauty and sexual love, and in many important respects similar to the Hellenic Aphrodite. In the Roman view, She was the daughter of Jupiter and Dione, and like so many Roman Divinities, she had considerable authority and influence in agrarian concerns, in her case gardens and flowering plants.
Vesper The evening star. Perhaps a son of Aurora.
Vesta A household Guardian of primary importance, She is the Goddess of fire as a controlled thing, and of the hearth. Her Temple in Rome was considered one of the chief props of the State, its continuity guarenteeing the health of the res publica. It contained an eternal flame, and was administered by a company of priestesses sworn to virginity. No male could enter the sanctuary, not even the Pontifex Maximus.
Voltumna (Etruscan) Goddess associated with fertility and motherhood.
Vulcan (Etruscan) Originally an Etruscan God, Vulcan came to be recognized as a primary patron of Smiths, mechanics, and craftsmen. As such, he was often combined with the Hellenic Hephaestus and, like him (and so many other Aryan Smithy Gods), was lame. Also like Hephaestus, He was not highly honoured, owing to the very deeply felt Classic Mediterranean contempt for manual craft and labor.
Zirna (Etruscan) Goddess of the moon, and close companion to Turan.
Agrarian DeitiesThe Romans regarded themselves in their distant origins as a pastoral folk, and to them, the farm and it's works always remained a primary source of inspiration and pride. Like most other people, the Romans had a number of Deities associated with agricultural concerns, but the Roman versions were not generally connected genealogically with the other divinities, and were of an unusually specific character. Here is a comment on a number of these spirits:
Ceres Goddess of agriculture and the harvest, and Divine source of Life energy. Similar in many respects to the Hellenic Demeter, Ceres is also responsible for seasonality in abdicating her Attribute during winter, the time when her daughter Proserpina spends underground with Pluto.
Horta (Etruscan) A Goddess associated with agriculture generally.
Imporcitor The God presiding over the plowing of the fields; especially, the drawing of the furrow.
Insitor The God presiding over the sowing of seed.
Lactanus The God of crop vitality and growth.
Mellonia Presiding Goddess of bee-keeping.
Messor The God of the reaping and harvesting process.
Neptunus The earliest version of Neptune, this Aspect is the presiding God of Irrigation and canals.
Nodotus A Divinity of grain crops, specifically assigned to guard the health of the stalks. Not unsurprisingly, He also has patronage over straw and similar products.
Obarator The God ruling over fertilization and seed production.
Ops (South Italian) A Goddess of the harvest, She controls the growth of plants from seed to maturity. She was said to be the spouse of Saturn.
Pales A Goddess of pastoral concerns, She is Guardian and Nurturer of the flocks and herds.
Pomona Goddess of orchards and fruit-bearing trees.
Promitor God of fruition and the coming-to-readiness for harvest of the crops.
Puta The Goddess of pruning, trimming, and silviculture generally.
Redarator God of the ploughing-under, the return of the fields to fallow after harvest.
Sarritor A God governing the gathering of the harvest; specifically, the Patron of the carts hauling the harvest to the mills.
Spiniensis A God of briar patches and thorn bushes; He is the Patron of the uprooting of same. He is thus an Aspect of an important process to the Roman mind, that of reducing the Wild to the Orderly.
Stercullus The God of fertilization and the manuring of the crops.
Ubertas Patron of agrarian wealth and plenty.
Tellus An ancient Grain Goddess, often called Terra Mater (Earth-Mother), and responsible for crop growth and fertility. She has authority over the Dead, as well, and in that Aspect Her name was used to curse enemies; opponent armies were deemed Her legitimate sacrifice.
Vertumnus The Consort of Pomona, He is the Patron of gardeners and cultivated ground; He also has a general authority over orderly change, as in the progress of the seasons. Based on an earlier Etruscan Deity.
Birth and Childhood DeitiesAs I have mentioned elsewhere in this archive, the Romans had what amounts to an obsession with edges, boundaries, changes-of-state, and movement between conditions. One of the more important manifestations of such passage is, of course, birth and early childhood. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the Romans maintained a large selection of divinities with unusually specific areas of authority within the general realm of infancy and childhood:
Abeona and Adeona Two Goddesses very closely linked; Abeona guides a child while leaving a room or condition, and Adeona performs the same office for children entering or beginning.
Alemona The Goddess who protects the health and safety of the unborn.
Candelifera and Carmentia Two closely associated Goddesses, Candelifera guides an unborn infant to Lucina and the experience of the childs first sight, while Carmentia is an oracular Goddess who pronounces a newborn's destiny based on what, in fact is the first thing they lay eyes upon.
Cunina Goddess of the cradle, and Protectress of the nursery.
Decima and Nona Two closely linked Goddesses who are guardians of the nine months of gestation.
Deverra and Intercidona Two guardians of newborns, whose specific task is defence against malignant influence, especially magickal or spiritual.
Edusa Goddess of nourishment, especially for infants.
Fabulinus A God who governs the first words uttered by a toddler.
Lucina An Aspect of Diana, Lucina is both a Spirit of midwivery as the Source of the first light seen by a newborn, and also Goddess of Moonlight and hence bringer of visions and phantasms. See also Candelifera.
Partula Goddess of parturition
Pilumnus Guardian God of an infant at the moment of birth.
Potina Goddess of nourishment, specifically healthy liquids and drinks, in infants.
Rumina Goddess of breast-feeding.
Vagitanus The Guardian God ruling an infant's first sound after birth.
Volumna A general guardian and tutelary of infancy and the nursery.
Conceptual DeitiesThe Romans had a strong habit of personifying and deifying abstractions, such as behaviors, philosophical ideals, and conditional states of being. They are, of course, not alone in this; examples of such abstractive apotheosizing can be found around the world. The Romans were a good deal more complete in this, however, and ended up with a surprisingly large number of such Gods. These Deities often had only perfunctory personalities, and were usually not related as children or parents of the other Gods. Here is a partial list of such Divinities:
Abundantia Goddess of plenty and wealth.
Aequitas Goddess of honesty and fairness in contracts and negotiations.
Clementia Goddess of mildness and mercy.
Disciplina Goddess of martial order and soldierly conduct.
Discordia Goddess of confusion and unreasoning panic. Often conflated with the Hellenic Eris.
Faustitas Goddess of benificence and fertility.
Fecunditas Goddess of growth and fertility
Felicitas Goddess of prosperity, especially agricultural.
Fides God of trust, faith, and loyalty.
Fortuna Goddess of luck and chance, often combined with the Hellenic Tyche. Not unsurprisingly, She is often imaged embracing Pluto. Note also the Celtic Nehalennia and the Anglo-Saxon Elen.
Fraus Goddess of treachery and betrayals.
Honus God of military honor, especially as exemplified by awards and recognition.
Justicia Goddess of balanced agreement and justice. Sometimes equated with the Hellenic Dike.
Liberalitas Goddess of generosity and social virtue.
Libertas Goddess of freedom. She is always seen wearing a freedman's cap, as does the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor, a figure which would be instantly recognizable to a Roman, and unremarkable save for sheer size.
Moneta Goddess of wealth and fortune. An Aspect of Juno, as her temple was the site of the mint.
Pietas Goddess of filial devotion and duty.
Providentia Goddess of forethought.
Securita Goddess of safety and stability.
Spes Goddess of hope.
Tacita Goddess of silence.
Victoria Goddess of victory, especially in a martial sense. Sometimes equated with the Hellenic Nike..
Virtus Goddess of Virtue and integrity.
Voluptas Goddess of satisfaction, pleasure, and delight.
Provincial DeitiesThe Romans were great synchretists, and cheerfully identified and cross-indexed any local Divinity they encountered with those they had previous contact with. These are Divinities found in provincial settings throughout the Empire. In some instances they are local Gods given a Roman veneer. In other cases, they are synchretic Divinities built up from various elements found applicable to the locality. In some instances, their cult became widespread throughout the whole Roman world.
Arecurius (one who stands before the assembly, lawgiver?). British. A Tutelary God of northern Britannia during the Roman occupation.
Ataecina Iberian An underworld Goddess often conflated by Romans as Proserpina.
BacaxNorth African An obscure Deity, evidently cthonic, associated with caverns.
Belatucadros (shining one, bright). British. Apparently an early version of Bran the Blessed, and clearly cognate with Beli. He was honoured by common soldiers in the north of Britain during the Roman occupation.
Candamius Iberian An astral Deity often conflated with Jupiter; his cult was strongest in northern Iberia.
CariociecusIberian A war God, often conflated with Mars.
DercetiusIberian A God of mountains and upland regions.
Eacus Iberian A weather deity, often conflated with Jupiter.
EndouellicusIberian An oracular God, with healing attributes. His cult was strongest in western Iberia.
The Hellenic PantheonThe blending of Latin with Hellenic elements was extreme, and produced a long series of Divinities with virtually identical Attributes, and two names, a Latin one and a Greek one. The two pantheons are nearly isomorphic in fact, from Jupiter/Zeus and Juno/Hera on down to the most obscure of local Spirits. In general, it can be assumed that any Hellenic Deity was acknowledged and revered by Romans as well.
Isis EgyptianAlso widely known as Stella Maris (Star of the Sea). She is the very well known Egyptian Goddess associated with rebirth and motherhood, and her cult became very popular in many areas during Roman imperial times. That cult has had a powerful impact on the development of Christianity in general and the accretion of beliefs surrounding the Virgin Mary in particular: it has long been noted that early images of Mary and the Christ child bear a striking similarity to contemporaneous images of Isis and Horus.
Maponus.British. Lord of poetry and music; revered during the Roman occupation of Britain.
Nemetona (she of the sacred grove). Gaulish. A Continental Deity revered during Roman times; her name may be cognate with the Irish Valkyrie Nemain, and in fact the Romans seem to have regarded her as having some connection with Mars.
"Mercury".Gaulish/Continental. This is a native Celtic divinity who was identified by the Romans as the Celtic version of their own Mercurius/Hermes. His Celtic Name was ignored and has not survived. He seems to have been a God of prosperity, and skill in artisanship. He is closely associated with Rosmerta, although the Latin Mercurius had no Consort. His attributes, and what little is known of his worship, and an analysis of the location of his shrines, all suggest fairly strongly that He may be the Gallic version of Lugh.
Mithras. Persian/Mesopotamian Based on a Zoroastrian original (Mitra), Mithras became a virtually universal God in later Imperial times, especially among legionary soldiers. An austere and highly ethical Divinity, Mithras demanded honourable conduct, obedience to authority, truthfulness, loyalty, and personal rectitude. His cult was in direct competition with early Christianity, and may very well have won out in the end, were it not for the fact that it was an exclusively male religion; females of any species were not permitted within the sanctuaries. Christianity, while taking a dim view of females, nevertheless allowed them in the church as long as they behaved themselves, and so had a broader appeal.
Rosmerta.Gaulish/Continental. A Celtic Goddess whose name has not survived despite out best data
recovery efforts, except for Her Latin nomen, which means "Good Provider". She is essentially a Goddess of success and prosperity, and her chief attribute is an inexhaustable Purse of Plenty. She is almost invariably associated with Mercury.
Sarapis. Helleno-Egyptian A synchretic Deity introduced into Egypt from Macedonia as an aspect of Osiris and a symbol of rebirth, Sarapis became widely revered during Roman Imperial times as a solar God with healing Attributes, combining elements of Jupiter, Helios, and Aesculapius.
Semnocosus Iberian A War God, commomly worshipped among common soldiers in Iberian legions.
Sol Invictus A late Imperial Aspect of Jupiter, combining many elements of Sovereignty, Aerial, weather, and Solar cults.
The Imperial Cult Beginning at the end of the Republic, and continuing on into Imperial times, it became commonplace to accord Divine honors to Emperors (and sometimes their immediate families) after their demise, and on very rare occasions during their lifetimes. This custom is not essentially different from that of the present Roman Church in Beatifying and Sanctifying certain of it's own notables. I do not propose to include a list of every Roman Emperor who had a temple built to him, since my purpose is one of mythology rather than that of descriptions of known historical figures. Nevertheless, I cannot forbear from including at least a small sample of these figures, culled from among those whose, influence, subsequent memory of, and deification seem to require mention.
Augustus (63 BCE-14 CE) Born Octavius Caesar, and granted the Style of Augustus (revered one) in 27 BCE, he is considered the founder of the Empire, and he is certainly the man who restored the state to stability and security after years of civil war.
Claudius (10 BCE-54 CE) An eccentric and scholarly member of the Caesar gens, he was considered a ridiculous and insignificant burden, but by 41 CE, he was one of only a few members of the family left alive, and was catapulted to the Imperial throne upon the assassination of Caligula. Thereupon he ruled the Empire with common sense and shrewdness until his own poisoning 13 years later.
Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) The extremely well-known general and politician, a by-word for ruthless ambition. He can bew said to have laid the groundwork for the Empire, and as such he may perhaps be owed a great deal as the man who set up conditions by which Classic civilization was preserved and extended a further 500 years.
Marcus Aurelius (121-180)He stands, perhaps, at the apex of classic civilization, being the closest approximation to the Platonic ideal of the Philosopher-King. He was emperor at a time of Rome's greatest extent, and most stable era, and aside from this, he was a noted writer and thinker, whose works may still be studied today with profit.
Trajan (53-117)A wise and gifted Emperor, he brought the Empire to its greatest physical extent, and inaugurated an 80 year period of stability, strength, and good government.
Vespasian (9-79)A coarse and earthy general, full of common sense and a good-humoured appreciation of the limitations and responsibilities of power, he is noted as having ended an explosive civil war and providing the Empire with an uncommonly good government for ten years thereafter. In passing, it should also be recorded that he was the conqueror of Jerusalem after a protracted seige during the Jewish War, and the commander of the troops who brought the Ark of the Covenant as spoils to Rome.
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